Carbon Dioxide, Methane & Climate Change

This essay describes the four chemicals that precipitate to the greenhouse effect: Nitrous Oxide, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and HFC. Scrutinization of their negative impact on the world, how they are the principal cause of global warming and how these chemicals are being produced, has been attained by online source. All the material is authentic up to date and from reputable websites data and quantitative and qualitative research.

During my research it was clear to me how little people know about global warming and that it has already begun.   Already in Africa, 1.2 Billion individuals have left their farms, dead stock and homes and are existing on aid, living in tents and relying on water aid.

(www.newsweek.com,2020 8) Results disclosed that although the amount of Africans fleeing their country of birth for long periods of time or permanently is about 1.4 million a year, by 2050 this figure is predicted to reach between 2.8 million to 3.5 million a year.

Climate crisis has had a significant negative impact on the African farmers. The already baron continent of Africa relies on the heavy rain season for the water regeneration. The wet seasons have been far fewer and for less duration,  resulting in agricultural failures and animals dying from drought. 

Africa had 6bn tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2016 it was the second largest admitter of C02 in the world. The country’s emission was unusually high because the surface is covered by tropical forest and peatlands all of which are carbon sinks absorbing vast amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere. Scientists of the time stated that the affects of the weather i.e. extraordinarily high temperatures and severe drought was because of the carbon dioxide in the earths atmosphere.   payed The expert advice was ignored not unlike governments today ignoring scientists of the climate crisis on the whole planet. 

Farming and agriculture in general are particularly sensitive to climate change because of the biological upset to its eco system. The land in the UK will experience negative onslaught from the change in the precipitation. My research indicates that by 2030-2050 the weather would have changed so dramatically that the pacification level will start causing massive floods, horrific storms as a every season occurrence.  The sun will be so intense that we will be able to grow oranges, lemons and other produce like that of Spain and Greece. Arable real estate will develop into parched soil without nutrients and good topsoil.   We can expect pests that plague crops to come in from other tropical surrounding countries including mosquitoes that will contribute to malaria the biggest killer in India

Fertiliser used by farmers (nitrous oxide) and alternative greenhouse chemicals including new chemicals for new pests are polluting the environment.  Soil stores carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide and when ploughed or worked etc, this is discharged into our climate.  Methane is a by-product of animal waste. where there are cows and land there is methane. Livestock are responsible for 18% methane gas emission. Nitrous oxide is a natural bacterium located in the soil, ocean, water and stratosphere. It controls the ozone, but is highly toxic under particular conditions more so the carbon. 

The UK is the third greatest producer of C02 emissions  in the world. With our contribution with the industrial revolution the UK likewise had one of the vastest mining corporations in Europe. When mining coal there is a constant leak of carbon dioxide.   It has now been discovered to our country’s detriment that pits can carry on leaking CO2 continuously up to 70 years or more after they are closed. 13 million tonnes of coal were produced in the United Kingdom, employing 4,000 workers across 30 location. This is an exceptionally huge amount of carbon dioxide. (www.wikipedia.org, 2020)

The Met office (www.metoffice.gov.uk,2020)predicts the summers will become more like 2018, with the heat hitting record temperatures of 2-3 Celsius. Irrigation will be an immense problem as there will be a mass of water shortage by 2050 so no irrigation means no crops, which means we will have a food shortage. The cost of any farming or gardening products including insurance, water, and fuel will be astronomical.  

The land and food will be in such short supply and South East Asia and Africa who currently provide the UK with a large amount of food, are predicted to end up under water, (www.asiatimes.com,2020)/ so the UK will have an even bigger food supply problem.

Rising sea levels in Southeast Asia have been driven by man-made greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, warming waters, heavy rainfall, and accelerated melting of ice in the Arctic and Antarctica. The West Antarctic ice sheet in particular is collapsing sooner and faster than predicted. Most of the Mekong Delta would be under water by 2050, Financial Times reported.

(www.asiatimes.com/2020/01/,2020)

The Indian ocean has warmed up massively (www.google.com/Indian,2020)o in the last 20 years it has accounted for one quarter of the oceans heat gain.  Asia’s sea level is rising up faster than the global average increasing  the likelihood of deadly heat waves  and probably monsoon cycles, with the peat beds of 27 billion hectares making 8% of the planets global warming in Asia.

Brazil, they have already harvested 12 billion hectares of rainforest out of 27 million hectares causing 47% carbon emissions into the atmosphere and there will be more to come. The large proportion of clearance is for beef cattle to graze or for Palmolive oil for fuel. This will cause more methane in massive quantities from the cattle waste. The burning of the trees is releasing the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere warming up our planet by up to 20-25% at an alarming rate and not just in Brazil other countries are desecrating their jungles and forests too.

In Russia the permafrost is melting thousands of years before its time and as such it will eventually release the methane and carbon stored inside it from the plant compound from over a millennia ago. The national geographic interviewed ‘Sergey Zimov’, who founded the Northeast Science Station, in Russia. He and his son discovered the melting permafrost and have pointed out that should this not be slowed down then the carbon release on the planet would be ten times more problematic then the rain forests or fossil fuel. Permafrost has both Carbon and Methane. There is hope that they will be able to recreate the Pleistocene era by recreating the grasslands and slow the thaw down. (http://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk,2020)

South East Asia (www.sciencedaily.com,2020) are a massive C02 contributor to global warming mainly the desecration  of their peat lands. 27 million hectares and 12 million drained and deforested, that is 100 tons of carbon per hectare per year that enters our atmosphere. Asia equals 8% of global emissions from fossil burning 90% originates from Indonesia putting them on the map with China, USA and UK, with India and Russia following up behind. (www.sciencedaily.com,2020)

India is a liability regarding the green house affect they have a massive land site problem with gigantic piles of waste in the slums and streets all releasing methane to add to the global warming crisis.  The slums are producing millions of fossil fires for people cooking and keeping warm in the winter. One slum can have as many residents as 1 million and that is just for one slum city, and there are countless slum cities in India. The largest slum in India has 1,000,000 (www.google.com/search?slum)  people living on it. The heat that is created from the slums is stored in the concrete, (thermal flywheel’ effect) buildings and corrugated roof tops soring the heat up to  29.59 Celsius, this is known as the urban heat island affect.  6.6 million live in squalor in India rising to 2 billion by 2030.With those numbers cooking in slums across the country, cutting down trees, draining resources and creating more rubbish piles of immense size causing methane to leak into the atmosphere.   (www.google.com/search?slum)

India also has the largest fossil fuel consumption at about 80% and it is going to increase by 2030, India imports fossil fuel as its electricity consumption is more than its capacity to provide its countries own fuel

www.ipcc.chf,2020) The oceans absorb the carbon dioxide, since 1969 they have warmed up by 4 degrees. The ocean is absorbing 2.2 billion tons of C02 and the acidity is up by 30% bleaching the coral and killing of the marine life and plankton. 

(www.ipcc.chf,2020)  Plankton provide us with 50 – 85% of our oxygen as well as contributing dimethyl sulphide to the atmosphere which helps cloud formation. Plankton is been over fished by trawlers causing the ocean bed to be  more susceptible to global warming. Plankton protects the seabed as it is an essential carbon sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gases. The dimethyl sulphide that it generates is discharged into the environment breaking down the carbon and forming clouds. To lose all the ocean plankton would be catastrophic for many reasons.

The North Atlantic drift assists immensely to the warming of the climate in western Europe and particularly the UK. Without drift the UK would be as cold as Canada. The drift distributes carbon dioxide and the suns radiation, so it does not reach the earth’s surface.  It acts as a sink tank for the earth’s protection. With no plankton, drift, rain forest or ocean surface protection from the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere we would have no natural greenhouse safeguard and the planet could plunge into an environment like 20-30 million years ago.

Quantitative Statement

Microsoft virtual earth and google earth are the leading forefront developmentalists in heightening the importance of geographical investigation into global outbreak of disease, managing natural resources. They have been pioneers in showing the importance of geographical information. It was for this reason I chose this research.

·       How are we changing the environment?

·       How are we best preserving biological diversity and protect endangered ecosystems

·       How our climate and other environments are affecting our planet.

·       How will 10 billion people live

·       How will we develop effective migration strategies and necessitates understandings?

How are we changing the environment?

The Victorians planted an earth-based heat reader making the first reading in 1880. The earth’s temperature had risen steadily ever since the industrial revolution reaching a crisis point in our planet’s history now. In 1906 -2005 the global temperature was 0.74 c consequently glaciers melting has caused the sea to rise by 17cm.   Globally the last five years  have been the warmest for 140 years.

We need to protect our biological diversity and we need to act now. In Russia (www.nationalgeographic.co.uk winter,2020) they have set up an outpost where a whole science family live and monitor everything from the ground up.  It is they that have found the permafrost thawing and contacted National Geographic to warn of the severity of this threat in comparison to the rain forests.  They have managed to come up with a protective plan to recreate the Pleistocene era and slow down the thaw process. It is not ideal and will not stop it, but it will trick the permafrost into thinking it is in a different environment. This is one good example of how we can protect our ecosystems and species on the planet. We are all intrinsically connected as we live together existing on this vast planet of networks and complexities. We need to start protecting other ecosystems before they go into decline to. Like the plankton in the sea that is been over fished , this is a big part of our greenhouse effect, (www.wwf.org.uk, 2020)

How are 10 million people going to live?

United nations are not legally bound to protect climate migrants but there is aid out there in a volunteering capacity like Red Cross.  However, 193 countries have adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which address both migration and climate change. (www.brooking, 2020) /

Some guidelines and goals were established by the SDGs

·       On climate action outlines several targets that address the climate crisis:

·       strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries:

·       Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation.

·       Impact reduction and early warning. To meet these goals, extensive bilateral and multilateral development assistance will be needed. Create a strategic approach to focus development assistance and multilateral organizations on those targets this being to create resilient societies that can keep people in their communities.

How will we develop effective migration strategies and necessitates understandings?

(https://www.brookings.edu, 2020) made a report in 2018, the World Bank estimated that three regions (Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia) will generate 143 million more climate migrants by 2050.3 In 2017, 68.5 million people were forcibly displaced, more than at any point in human history. While it is difficult to estimate, approximately one-third of these (22.54 to 245 million people) were forced to move by “sudden onset” weather events— flooding, forest fires after droughts, and intensified storms. While the remaining two-thirds of displacements are the results of other humanitarian crises, it is becoming obvious that climate change is contributing to so-called slow onset events such as desertification, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, air pollution, rain pattern shifts and loss of biodiversity.

The problem is that this will just be a beginning of what is yet to come it could well push other humanitarian crisis and lead to yet more people migrating. There is currently no multilateral strategies (https://www.brookings.eduor legal frameworks that can work with climate change migration. There have been cases of migration where climate change has been as well as war or drought, but not solely alone. The Teitota family (https://www.brookings.edu), applied for refuge status in New Zealand, fleeing their drowning island that has now been reclaimed by the Pacific rising at a constant vast rate, having already submerged eight islands. They used climate change in their case, and it was dismissed. The general feeling of consensus is that be it degradation, conflict, sea level rising, as in the Pacific Islands, cyclone or agricultural there is no doubt that climate challenges and global warming will be a prompting factor in future migration.

Conclusion

The good news is it is not too late and  Over 500 major chains across the world have joined the anti-fishing campaign and if the supplier cannot provide the appropriate paperwork to trace the catch back to source then they cannot trade. This will stop illegal fishing and draining the oceans in the competitive market.  There has been a massive step in European countries joining forces with the aim to stop pollution in the sea. America have been discussing their options with the fossil fuel crisis and we are already using electric cars and wind power. There is the COP21 Paris Agreement 2015, 196 partners will develop their trajectories. There is the United Nations Framework convention and the Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change founded in 1988. All is not lost.

Research data used and references

https://asiatimes.com/2020/01/se-asia-slowly-but-surely-sinking-into

https://www.carbonbrief.orgm 2026)s 

https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-ocean-heat-content

https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/intro/index_en.htm

https://www.en.wikipedia.org m

https://www.google.com/

https://www.google.com/search?slum

(www,journals.plos.org/plosoneone.0228777,2020)

https://www2.meteo.uni-bonn.de/mitarbeiter/venema/

https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk   winter

https://www.nfuonline.com/cross-sector/environment/climate-change/

https://www.sciencedaily.comm/

https://www.wwf.org.uk/climate-change-and-global-warming

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Atlantic_Currenthttps://www.un.org/en/climatechange/advocates.shtml

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